What is Diabetes? Symptoms, Causes and Treatment

Diabetes is a much talked about subject these days due to the fastest growing rate of this disease around the globe. Many health organizations have declared this fatal disease as an epidemic. But what exactly Diabetes is? Diabetes is characterized by high levels of blood sugar caused by levels of insulin. They are unable to reduce this sugar level which leads to further health complications if neglected. Sugar gets into the bloodstream when we metabolize the food and it is used by body’s cell as energy. The cells would starve without this energy!!

Explanation of Diabetes

Diabetes is a metabolic disease caused by a very high percentage of sugar inside our body. Due to the inability of the body to create insulin, a person starts suffering from this disease. The risk factors like Polyuria or frequent urination, increase in hunger or thirst are very common in the diabetic patients. There are basically 2 types of diabetes: one is the insulin dependent type (Type 1) and other is non-insulin dependent (Type 2). Read ahead to learn the difference between these two.

  • Type 1: As insulin is required to control the levels of sugar in blood, it is created by the beta cells in pancreas. This type is commonly found in children especially. Patients suffering from type 1 usually must need an insulin injection as their medication. You can partially cure this diabetic type by regularly watching on blood sugar levels and replacement of insulin.
  • Type 2: It is much worse than type 1. This combines resistance to insulin to lack of secretion of insulin and the patient would not need insulin shot in this case. The body creates inability to create insulin due to problems in the cells and it is mostly found in adults. What you can do to cure this is have proper diet and exercise.


The symptoms of diabetes can go undiscovered by many people which further leads to health problems when the disease is not properly investigated and organized. The basic reason of this inattention is because many of its symptoms are not alarming. In reality, some may not even seem like syndromes at all. The two types of categories has different symptom list but most of them are common among two.

Type 1 Symptom:

  • Always thirsty
  • Tendency to urinate quite often
  • Excessive hunger
  • Weight loss
  • Extreme fatigue
  • Irritability

Type 2 Symptom:

  • All the similar symptoms of type 1
  • Frequent infections
  • Blurred vision
  • Open wounds that don’t heal
  • Numbness in hands & feet
  • Issues with skin or mouth cysts

Anyone who suffers from any of this type 2 diabetes symptoms should consult with their doctor and get the aid at earliest stage.


It is often thought that eating excessive amount of sugar or sugary foods will give you diabetes. But this is not true!! Eating sugary foods will not give you diabetes but it could lead to a gain in weight if there is not enough exercise to go with the food intake. Then what are the exact causes of diabetes? The answer of what causes diabetes is not clearly known, but still some factors that contribute to diabetes have been identified and are considered to be the risk factors of diabetes.

  • Inherited traits: There are some genes which pass from one generation to another. These genes may cause the person to inherit this disease and the chances of being diabetic is inherited vary with the closeness of blood relationship. Like the risk of diabetes is more in child if parents are diabetic.
  • Age: There is no particular age for but its probability increases with increasing age.
  • Poor diet: Improper nutrition, low fiber and protein intake or high intake of refined processed foods increases the risk.
  • Obesity: Being overweight is also one of the leading causes of diabetes.
  • Serum Lipid: High cholesterol level and triglycerides are also related to high glucose levels.
  • Stress: Any physical injury or emotional disturbance is also considered as the cause of diabetes. Some people become addicted to drugs due to stress which induces the diabetic condition.


The basic treatment of diabetes is to follow healthy eating habits, keeping up with physical activity and using insulin by injection or pump. One must monitor his blood sugar readings often throughout the day. A person with type 2 diabetes may need oral medication as well as insulin to control blood glucose levels. You can set up a diabetic diet plan which consists of portions of carbohydrates, proteins & fats. Exercise is also an important part of the treatment. Type 1 diabetes will also inject insulin whenever they are about to have meal or if they have high reading. People with type 2 diabetes could also take medication so that the body responds to the naturally created insulin.

In some cases, artificial pancreas replaces the glucose monitoring & insulin injections, measures blood sugar levels and automatically administer appropriate dose of insulin. The other treatment procedure including exercise, diet has their own importance. One should avoid food items like fried or salty foods like potato chips, sugary foods as well as sugar added drinks to reduce the risk of this disease. A diabetic patient can reverse high blood glucose with these methods at the early stage of diabetes. It becomes incurable at high stage and only its effects can be managed at that stage. Though there are surgeries available but you go for other natural options before heading to this process. Try to maintain a healthy blood glucose level so that you can keep yourself protect from the lethal consequences.

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